# Asphalt Millings Calculator In Cubic Yards and Tons

As an asphalt millings specialist with over 25 years of expertise, determining accurate quantities of reclaimed asphalt millings for reuse in projects is an essential skill. Here I will share the standard methods for calculating tonnage volumes of milled material according to established industry protocols as well.

## Overview of Asphalt Milling Operations

When deteriorated asphalt pavement needs rehabilitation but the substrate is still structurally sound, milling the surface layer is often the most economical option. Milling entails using a large rotational drum equipped with carbide teeth to grind and remove the top layer of asphalt down to a desired depth.

## My Proven Data For Asphalt Millings Calculations

## Asphalt Milling Volume Calculator

**Measurement and Calculation**

**Calculating Volume**

Parameter | Formula | Description |
---|---|---|

Volume (ft³) | Length (ft) x Width (ft) x Depth (ft) | Calculates the volume of milled material based on the milled area dimensions. |

Volume (m³) | Length (m) x Width (m) x Depth (m) | Calculates the volume of milled material in metric units. |

*Explanation:* Accurate volume calculations are essential for estimating the quantity of milled material, ensuring proper planning, and allocating resources for transportation and disposal or recycling.

**Area Measurement**

Technique | Description |
---|---|

Ground Surveying | Utilize surveying equipment like total stations or GPS to measure the length and width of the milled area. |

Aerial Imagery | Leverage aerial imagery and photogrammetry to map and measure the milled area accurately. |

*Explanation:* Precise area measurements are crucial for calculating the volume of milled material, as any inaccuracies can lead to significant discrepancies in the overall quantity estimates.

**Depth Requirements**

Milling Depth | Typical Application |
---|---|

1.5 – 2 inches | Surface restoration, minor repairs |

2 – 4 inches | Partial depth removal, rehabilitation |

> 4 inches | Full-depth removal, reconstruction |

*Explanation:* The required milling depth is determined by the project scope, with deeper milling necessary for more extensive pavement rehabilitation or reconstruction projects. Depth verification is crucial for accurate volume calculations.

**Conversion Factors**

Conversion | Formula |
---|---|

Cubic Feet to Cubic Yards | Volume (ft³) / 27 = Volume (yd³) |

Cubic Meters to Cubic Yards | Volume (m³) x 1.308 = Volume (yd³) |

*Explanation:* Conversion factors are necessary for expressing the calculated volume in the desired units, such as cubic yards, which are commonly used in the industry for material quantity estimation and transportation.

**Weight Calculations**

**Unit Weight of Asphalt**

Material | Typical Unit Weight Range |
---|---|

Hot Mix Asphalt | 145 – 165 lbs/ft³ |

Aged Asphalt | 135 – 155 lbs/ft³ |

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) | 110 – 130 lbs/ft³ |

*Explanation:* The unit weight of the milled asphalt material is a critical factor in determining the total weight of the milled material. Laboratory testing and material characterization are necessary to accurately determine the unit weight based on the material’s composition and condition.

**Formula Total Weight Needed (Milled Material in Tons)**

Formula | Description |
---|---|

Weight (tons) = Volume (ft³) x Unit Weight (lbs/ft³) / 2,000 lbs/ton | Calculates the total weight of the milled material in tons based on the volume and unit weight. |

Weight (metric tons) = Volume (m³) x Unit Weight (kg/m³) / 1,000 kg/metric ton | Calculate the total weight of the milled material in metric tons. |

*Explanation:* Accurate weight calculations are essential for determining the required transportation capacity, disposal or recycling facility requirements, and overall project planning and resource allocation.

**Formula For Asphalt Millings Weight-to-Volume Ratio**

Material | Typical Weight-to-Volume Ratio |
---|---|

Hot Mix Asphalt | 0.145 – 0.165 tons/yd³ |

Aged Asphalt | 0.135 – 0.155 tons/yd³ |

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) | 0.110 – 0.130 tons/yd³ |

*Explanation:* The weight-to-volume ratio, expressed in tons per cubic yard, provides a quick reference for estimating weight based on the known volume of milled material. This ratio can vary depending on the material’s composition and condition.

**Estimating Cost for Asphalt Millings**

**Asphalt Millings Cost Per Ton**

Cost Component | Typical Range |
---|---|

Milling Cost | $2 – $6 per ton |

Transportation Cost | $0.10 – $0.30 per ton-mile |

Disposal/Recycling Cost | $10 – $50 per ton |

*Explanation:* Estimating the cost per ton for milling, transportation, and disposal or recycling is crucial for accurate project budgeting and cost management. These costs can vary based on factors such as project location, material handling requirements, and market conditions.

**Transportation Costs of Asphalt Millings**

Factor | Description |
---|---|

Distance | The distance between the milling site and the disposal or recycling facility significantly impacts transportation costs. |

Truck Capacity | Utilizing trucks with optimal capacity can maximize efficiency and minimize transportation costs. |

Haul Routes | Selecting efficient haul routes and considering factors like traffic congestion can affect transportation costs. |

*Explanation:* Transportation costs are a significant component of the overall project cost, and careful consideration of factors like distance, truck capacity, and haul routes can help optimize transportation costs and improve project profitability.

**Installation Costs of Asphalt Millings**

Cost Component | Description |
---|---|

Labor | Costs associated with skilled labor for installing or placing the milled material. |

Equipment | Costs related to the operation and maintenance of equipment used for installation or placement. |

Materials | Costs of additional materials required for installation, such as binders or stabilizers. |

*Explanation:* If the milled material is being reused or recycled for new construction purposes, installation costs must be considered, including labor, equipment, and additional material expenses.

**Adjustments for Project Variables**

**Subgrade Quality for required milling dept**

Subgrade Condition | Adjustment Factor |
---|---|

Stable, well-compacted subgrade | No adjustment required |

Unstable, poor subgrade quality | Increase milling depth or add stabilization measures |

*Explanation:* The quality of the subgrade can significantly impact the required milling depth and the overall project scope. Adjustments may be necessary to account for unstable or poor subgrade conditions, potentially increasing costs and material quantities.

**Compaction Factor of milled material**

Compaction Level | Adjustment Factor |
---|---|

Well-compacted material | No adjustment required |

Loose, uncompacted material | Increase material quantity estimates |

*Explanation:* The level of compaction of the milled material can affect its density and, consequently, the weight and volume calculations. Adjustments to material quantity estimates may be required for loose or uncompacted milled material.

**Weather Conditions**

Weather Factor | Adjustment |
---|---|

Excessive moisture or precipitation | Increase drying time and costs, adjust material quantities |

Extreme temperatures | Adjust equipment and material handling procedures |

*Explanation:* Weather conditions, such as excessive moisture or extreme temperatures, can impact the milling process, material handling, and transportation. Adjustments to project timelines, costs, and material quantities may be necessary to account for these factors.

**Asphalt Milling Volume Calculations (Imperial Units)**

Length (ft) | Width (ft) | Depth (in) | Volume (ft³) |
---|---|---|---|

100 | 12 | 2 | 200 |

250 | 8 | 3 | 500 |

500 | 15 | 4 | 2,500 |

1,000 | 20 | 6 | 10,000 |

2,500 | 25 | 8 | 41,667 |

**Asphalt Milling Volume Calculations (Metric Units)**

Length (m) | Width (m) | Depth (mm) | Volume (m³) |
---|---|---|---|

30 | 3 | 50 | 45 |

75 | 2.5 | 75 | 140 |

150 | 4 | 100 | 600 |

300 | 6 | 150 | 2,700 |

750 | 7.5 | 200 | 11,250 |

**Asphalt Milling Weight Scenarios**

Scenario | Composition | Density (lbs/ft³) | Volume (ft³) | Weight (lbs) |
---|---|---|---|---|

High Compaction | Dense, low air voids | 150 | 5,000 | 750,000 |

Low Compaction | Loose, high air voids | 125 | 5,000 | 625,000 |

Mixed Material | Asphalt with soil/aggregate | 135 | 5,000 | 675,000 |

Aged Material | Oxidized, brittle asphalt | 145 | 5,000 | 725,000 |

High Moisture | Wet, saturated asphalt | 160 | 5,000 | 800,000 |

**Asphalt Milling Volume (Imperial Units)**

Milling Depth | Volume per Lane Mile |
---|---|

1 inch | 483 cubic yards |

2 inches | 966 cubic yards |

3 inches | 1,449 cubic yards |

4 inches | 1,932 cubic yards |

5 inches | 2,415 cubic yards |

**Asphalt Milling Volume (Metric Units)**

Milling Depth | Volume per Lane Kilometer |
---|---|

25 mm | 185 cubic meters |

50 mm | 370 cubic meters |

75 mm | 555 cubic meters |

100 mm | 740 cubic meters |

125 mm | 925 cubic meters |

**Asphalt Milling Weight Estimates**

Material Condition | Typical Density Range (lbs/ft³) | Weight per Lane Mile (Tons) |
---|---|---|

New/Hot Mix Asphalt | 145 – 165 | 1,400 – 1,600 (2″ Depth) |

Aged Asphalt | 135 – 155 | 1,300 – 1,500 (2″ Depth) |

RAP (Milled Material) | 110 – 130 | 1,050 – 1,250 (2″ Depth) |

**Vetted Knowledge Base**

- Lane mile and lane kilometer volumes are based on a standard 12-foot (3.7m) lane width.
- Weight estimates assume a 2-inch (50mm) milling depth for comparison.
- Actual weights may vary based on material characteristics, compaction levels, and milling conditions.
- Regular testing and verification of material properties are recommended for accurate weight calculations.

**Quality Control Measures:**

Milling operations play a vital role in maintaining and repaving existing pavements, extending their service life, and improving ride quality. During the milling process, the resulting cold mix asphalt material, known as Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), can be reused in new asphalt mixtures, contributing to sustainable construction practices. Accurate calculations of milled material quantities are crucial for determining the required asphalt binders and aggregate proportions when incorporating RAP into new asphalt mixes. The Superpave mix design system provides guidelines for incorporating milled RAP material into new asphalt mixtures, ensuring optimal performance and durability.

**Depth Verification**

Employ string line or robotic total station surveys to verify milling depths across the project area.

**Material Sampling**

Collect representative samples of milled material for laboratory testing of gradation, asphalt content, and density.

**Truck Weighing**

Weigh loaded trucks hauling milled material to verify actual weights against calculated estimates.

**Gradation Analysis:**

Perform gradation tests on milled material to assess compliance with specified gradation limits for recycling or disposal.

**Moisture Content:**

Monitor and account for moisture content in milled material, as it can significantly impact weight calculations.

**Documentation:**

Maintain detailed records of milling depths, material properties, and weight calculations for quality control and future reference.

The milled material, known as reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), is then transported for reuse as an aggregate base or in new hot mix asphalt (HMA). Assessing the total quantity of RAP available from a milling job is critical for bidding on reuse projects or selling the material.

**Key Measurements Needed**

Calculating estimated tonnage first requires gathering key measurements in the field:

**Asphalt Milling Volume and Weight Calculations**

Proper milling techniques are essential for preparing aged asphalt pavements for resurfacing or rehabilitation projects.

**Milling Depth**

Milling depth is a critical parameter that directly influences the volume and weight of the milled material. Typical milling depths range from 1.5 to 4 inches (38 to 102 mm), with deeper milling required for more extensive pavement rehabilitation or reconstruction projects. Accurate milling depth calculations are essential for ensuring sufficient material removal while minimizing unnecessary waste, contributing to cost-effective and sustainable paved surface rehabilitation.

**Milling Width**

The width of the milling drum pass is another essential factor. Standard milling machines typically have a drum width of around 6 feet (1.8 m), allowing for efficient milling of a single lane or designated section. However, specialized machines with wider drums are available for larger-scale projects. In rural areas with unpaved roads, milling can be employed to remove and recycle existing surface materials, preparing for new surfacing or stabilization techniques.

**Length**

The length of the milled section, measured in feet or meters along the roadway, is the third key dimension required for volume and weight calculations. This parameter can vary significantly based on the project scope, ranging from localized repairs to full-length milling of entire highways or runways.

**RAP Density**

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), the milled material from asphalt surfaces, has a unique density that affects its weight calculations. Laboratory testing is typically conducted to determine the RAP’s weight density, which generally falls within the range of 110 to 130 pounds per cubic foot (1,760 to 2,080 kg/m³). Factors such as asphalt content, aggregate composition, and compaction levels can influence the RAP density.

**Industry-Accepted Formulas**

With these key parameters – milling depth, width, length, and RAP density – industry-accepted formulas can be applied to derive accurate estimates of the total tonnage quantities of milled material:

**Volume (ft³) = Length (ft) × Width (ft) × Depth (ft)** **Weight (tons) = Volume (ft³) × RAP Density (lbs/ft³) / 2,000 lbs/ton**

or

**Volume (m³) = Length (m) × Width (m) × Depth (m)** **Weight (metric tons) = Volume (m³) × RAP Density (kg/m³) / 1,000 kg/metric ton**

**Additional Considerations**

**Material Characterization:**Conduct comprehensive testing to accurately determine the RAP’s gradation, asphalt content, and other properties that may impact density and weight calculations.**Moisture Content:**Account for the moisture content in the milled material, as excessive moisture can significantly increase the overall weight and potentially lead to inaccurate calculations.**Compaction Levels:**The level of compaction during milling can affect the RAP density, with more compacted material exhibiting higher density values.

## Step 1 – Determine Milling Volume

Using the length, width, and depth measurements, calculate the volume of material removed in cubic feet or cubic meters:

**Volume (ft3) = Length (ft) x Width (ft) x Depth (in) / 12**

Or in metric units:

**Volume (m3) = Length (m) x Width (m) x Depth (mm) / 1,000,000**

Sum the volumes for each section milled if doing multiple roadway areas.

## Step 2 – Convert to Weight Using RAP Density

Take the RAP density test result and multiply it by the total volume to convert to tons:

**Tonnage = Volume (ft3) x RAP Density (lbs/ft3) / 2,000**

For metric:

**Tonnage = Volume (m3) x RAP Density (kg/m3) / 1,000**

This yields the estimated tons of RAP material recovered from the milling work.

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## Step 3 – Validate With Truck Volumes

As a check, compare the calculated tonnage to the actual truckload volumes hauled to validate the figures:

- Weigh a sample loaded truck on a scale to determine the average load weight
- Multiply by the total trucks filled from the milled piles
- Compare to tonnage estimate from calculations
- Make adjustments to calculations if needed to align with real-world quantities hauled

Proper planning, measurements, density testing, and truck data validation ensure milling tonnage is accurately assessed.

Asphalt Area Calculator Calculate cubic feet, density, volume and Asphalt Tonnage

## Example Milling Quantity Calculation

Let’s calculate tons of RAP for a project:

- The milled area is 750 feet long x 12 feet wide
- Milling depth averages 3 inches
- RAP density testing shows 115 lbs/ft3 density
- Trucks are hauling 22-ton loads on average

Applying the steps:

- Volume = 750 ft x 12 ft x 3 in / 12 = 2,250 ft3
- Tonnage = 2,250 ft3 x 115 lbs/ft3 / 2,000 = 130 tons
- 130 tons / 22 tons/truck = ~6 truckloads (matches actual)

Using the accepted standards produces reliable RAP quantities for reuse.

## Best Practices for Maximizing Accuracy

Some key best practices include:

- Measure milled areas and depths carefully in multiple spots for precision.
- Obtain lab testing of RAP density from project samples. Published averages are less reliable.
- Weigh trucks on certified scales, not estimates.
- Examine RAP pile shape and utilize surveying tools as needed to derive volumes.
- Compare truck data to calculations and tweak figures to match real-world observations.

Staying meticulous, using testing and validation checks, and following the proven calculations outlined here will produce excellent accuracy in determining available RAP. Please get in touch with me with any questions!

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**Best industry resources related to asphalt milling measurements and calculations**

**Government websites and industry standards:**

- Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) – The FHWA provides comprehensive guidance on pavement rehabilitation techniques, including asphalt milling and recycling.
- American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) – AASHTO publishes industry-standard specifications and test methods for asphalt milling, such as the AASHTO M 323 standard for Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP).
- National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) – NAPA offers extensive resources on asphalt pavement construction and rehabilitation, including guidance on milling and recycling practices.
- Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association (ARRA) – ARRA is dedicated to promoting best practices in asphalt recycling, including milling and RAP management.
- State Department of Transportation (DOT) Websites – Many state DOTs provide specifications, standard details, and guidance for asphalt milling and recycling projects within their respective jurisdictions.
- American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) – ASTM publishes numerous standards related to asphalt materials and testing, including ASTM D6307 for Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) materials.
- National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) – NIST provides standard reference materials and guidance for various construction materials, including asphalt binders and mixtures.
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – OSHA offers guidelines and regulations for safe work practices during asphalt milling and recycling operations.