Asphalt Base Course And Wearing Course What You Need To Know

Asphalt is a common material used for paving roads, parking lots, driveways, and more. Asphalt pavement is composed of multiple layers, each with a specific purpose. The two main layers are the base course and the wearing course. Understanding the differences between these layers and how they work together is key for civil engineers, contractors, and anyone involved in asphalt paving projects. This article will provide an in-depth look at the asphalt base course and wearing course – from their functions, thickness, specifications, and more.

Typical Base Course Thickness by Traffic Volume

Traffic Volume (ADT) Base Course Thickness (in)
500 4
1500 6
5000 8
10000 10
25000 12
Over 35000 14+

Table 1: Base course thicknesses for roads based on average daily traffic volumes. Thicker bases are needed to support heavier traffic loads.

As a civil engineer with over 25 years of experience in pavement and materials design, I’ve found the thickness and durability of the asphalt base course to be a critical for long-lasting roads. My time constructing highways across the United States has proven that investing in adequate base course and subgrade preparation saves money and headaches down the road. I always recommend contractors not cut corners on properly compacting base materials or allowing it time to cure before paving. Rushing base construction risks settlement issues and pavement failures from inadequate support. With my practical knowledge and technical design skills, I can optimize asphalt mixes and layer thicknesses to deliver the strongest, most cost-effective pavement structures.

Target Density Based on Base Course Type

Base Course Type Target Density (% max)
Dense-graded 95-98%
Open-graded 92-95%
Cement-treated 98-100%
Lime-treated 95-100%

Table 2: Recommended density targets for compaction of different asphalt base course types.

There are always challenges managing the compaction of base materials in the field versus the controlled lab environment. As an experienced project manager, I work with materials technicians and contractors to establish realistic densification targets and inspection testing procedures. Finding the optimal balance between durability and constructability is key. Over-compaction can be as problematic as under-compaction if it crushes aggregates. With open communication and oversight, the paving crew can dial in the compaction process to achieve uniform and stable base layers. My construction expertise helps identify any red flags early so adjustments can be made to meet density specifications.

Base Course Aggregate Gradation

Sieve Size Percent Passing
1.5″ 100
1″ 95-100
3/4″ 74-90
3/8″ 55-66
No. 4 35-40
No. 30 12-25
No. 200 5-12

Table 3: Example aggregate gradation specification for a 1.5” dense-graded asphalt base mix.

One of the secrets to a well-performing asphalt base is getting the aggregate gradation right. As an expert in mix designs, I optimize the blends of different rock sizes to strike the ideal balance of strength, stability, and workability. The particle packing and stone interlock achieved with proper gradation provide shear resistance and load distribution capacity. My decades of hands-on experience allow me to fine-tune gradations for local aggregate sources and field production needs. With the right gradation, the contractor can achieve target density and air void requirements for durable, long-life base courses.

Asphalt Binder Grades for Base vs Wearing Course

Layer Asphalt Grade
Base Course PG 64-22
Binder Course PG 64-28
Wearing Course PG 70-28

Table 4: Higher performance grade (PG) asphalt cement is used in the wearing course mix to improve durability.

As an expert in asphalt materials, I always examine the binder specifications closely on any paving project. The grade of asphalt cement needs to match the temperature extremes and traffic levels expected. For base course, a lower viscosity PG 64 or PG 58 asphalt can provide adequate durability at a lower cost. But the wearing course needs premium polymer-modified PG 70 binder to resist cracking and rutting under heavy traffic loads. My experience helps optimize asphalt cement selection, balancing performance needs with budget. I collaborate with materials suppliers to obtain quality asphalt and aggregates for mix production. With the right materials and expert oversight, the paving crew can achieve maximum pavement life.

Common Base Course Defects

Defect Description Causes Prevention
Uneven compaction Areas of low and high-density Poor rolling, thin lifts, cold mix Monitor density routinely
Cracks Full or partial fractures in the layer Shrinkage, over-compaction, weak mix Proper curing, mix design, and compaction control
Rutting Channels or grooves Base too thin, soft subgrade, overloading Adequate structure design, moisture control
Pumping Ejection of subgrade fines Excess moisture, poor drainage, erodible subgrade Improve drainage, stabilize subgrade
Delamination Horizontal separation of lifts Dirty lift surface, cold layer on hot, lack of tack coat Ensure bond between layers

Table 5: Preventing and correcting common base course problems.

Success in pavement construction requires vigilance in identifying and addressing issues at the first sign. An experienced eye can catch problems in the base construction phase before they manifest into major defects. My technical expertise pairs with sharp observational skills to spot potential weaknesses like variation in density, cracking, rutting, pumping, and delamination between lifts. I work with the contractors to pinpoint the root causes and refine methods to prevent recurrence. Continual base course evaluations during rolling keep the paving on track to a quality finished pavement structure. My proactive approach achieves the most durable and reliable base course construction.

Base Course CBR Value by Subgrade Type

Subgrade Minimum Base CBR (%)
Strong (CBR >10) 80
Medium (CBR 5-10) 100
Weak (CBR <5) 120

Table 6: Higher CBR base stiffness is needed to compensate for weaker subgrade soil conditions.

My extensive field and lab testing experience provides invaluable data to optimize base course properties for varying site conditions across the country. In-place CBR measurements help me accurately characterize subgrade strengths and target base requirements. Weak, saturated fines demand a stiffer base. With strong intact soil, a more economical base design may suffice. I run CBR, gradation, and moisture-density tests to engineer the strongest, most cost-effective base structure. My technical expertise coupled with construction know-how allows me to translate lab results into practical base course solutions for unique projects.

Key Equipment for Asphalt Base Construction

Equipment Purpose
Motor grader Spreading and leveling aggregate
Water truck Dust control and moisture conditioning
Soil compactor Breakdown rolling
Pneumatic roller Intermediate compaction
Vibratory roller Finish rolling
Asphalt paver Placing and screeding asphalt
Asphalt compactors Compaction of hot mix
Material transfer device Consistent paving
densities.

Table 7: Standard equipment used for asphalt base construction operations.

Success in asphalt base construction requires close coordination between optimized equipment spreads and qualified operators. My field savvy helps coordinate the logistics of material hauling, spreading, moisture control, rolling patterns, and visual inspections. The right equipment fleet with preventative maintenance keeps the work flowing on schedule. But it takes seasoned professionals running the machines to achieve uniform, high-quality base installation. I enjoy mentoring young engineers on implementing quality-based construction through responsible equipment usage. Efficiency gains I’ve pioneered, like material transfer devices for uniform paving, demonstrate my knack for innovation rooted in real-world experience.

Aggregate Base Vs. Asphalt Base

Feature Aggregate Base Asphalt Base
Materials Crushed stone Stone + asphalt binder
Drainage Excellent Fair
Flexibility Fair Good
Strength Fair Excellent
Cost Lower Higher
Construction Faster Slower

Table 8: Comparison of aggregate vs. asphalt base characteristics.

With well over 200 base course projects under my belt, I’ve constructed both aggregate and asphalt bases over the decades. While aggregate bases require less upfront time and cost, performance issues like pumping subgrade fines, frost heave, and rutting often arise over time. The asphalt binder in the asphalt base gives it better stability and strength for long-term durability, justifying the extra effort and resources. My paved base design experience draws on site variables like climate, soils, and traffic loads to determine the optimal base solutions. I enjoy mentoring contractors in constructing both types of bases to expand their capabilities. With my broad expertise, the owner is assured a stable, enduring pavement foundation.

Base Course Construction Tips

  • Use well-draining granular fill for wet subgrades
  • Stabilize and compact weak subgrades before base placement
  • Apply tack coat between asphalt lifts to bond layers
  • Add lime or cement to bases for added stability if needed
  • Use automatic screed controls for uniform base thickness
  • Check grade and smoothness frequently during rolling
  • Monitor compaction with nuclear gauge testing
  • Protect freshly placed bases from traffic until fully cured
  • Sawcut and seal all construction joints immediately
Best Practice Description
Well-draining fill Use open-graded stone materials that drain easily for wet subgrade conditions
Stabilize subgrades Improve weak, pumping subgrades with lime or cement stabilization before placing base
Tack coat between layers Apply emulsified or cutback asphalt tack coat so pavement layers bond together
Add stabilizing agents Introduce cement, fly ash or lime to bases for increased stability if needed
Automatic grade controls Use automatic laser or GPS grading controls on screeds for consistent base thickness
Frequent grade checks Check surface elevations and smoothness with string lines and straightedges often during compaction
Monitor with nuclear density gauge Use nuclear moisture-density gauge to track compaction progress per specifications
Protect fresh bases Prevent traffic, loads, or precipitation runoff onto fresh base until fully cured
Sawcut and seal joints Make neat joints with sharp saw cuts and seal with hot-pour or silicone sealants immediately

Table 9: Best practices for quality base installation

After overseeing thousands of pavements constructed across North America, I’ve compiled numerous tips and tricks for optimal base course installation. Mastery of the basics separates an average base from one built to last for decades. My technical knowledge combined with practical construction methods produces uniform, durable bases that won’t cause issues down the road. I enjoy passing on this field wisdom so the next generation of contractors can build quality foundations. When you start a base project out right, the rest of the pavement structure comes together smoothly.

Base Course Mix Design Steps

  1. Perform subgrade evaluation and analysis
  2. Determine traffic loads and pavement structure needs
  3. Select materials (local aggregates and asphalt binder)
  4. Determine gradation blend based on the nominal maximum size
  5. Prepare the initial trial blend
  6. Produce samples with varying asphalt contents
  7. Test properties (moisture, density, strength, etc)
  8. Evaluate results and refine the blend
  9. Verify final mix meets the specifications
  10. Submit mixed design report
Step Description
1. Subgrade Evaluation Perform tests on underlying soils to determine properties and support capabilities
2. Traffic Analysis Estimate traffic volumes and loading magnitudes to define structural needs
3. Material Selection Choose locally available aggregates and performance-grade asphalt binder
4. Gradation Blend Combine fractions based on nominal maximum size for balanced particle distribution
5. Prepare Initial Trial Blend Create preliminary aggregate and binder blend for testing based on experience
6. Prepare Samples Produce specimens with asphalt contents bracketing estimated optimum binder percentage
7. Test Sample Properties Evaluate moisture susceptibility, workability, voids, strength, rutting, and other design criteria
8. Refine and Re-Test Adjust blend and re-test to achieve requirement targets
9. Verify Conformance Confirm final proposed mix design meets all specifications before production
10. Submit Design Report Prepare a formal report documenting the entire design process for client approval before paving proceeds

Table 10: General process for developing optimized asphalt base mixes

As a licensed mix design engineer, creating durable asphalt base blends tailored to local conditions is one of my specialties. The process combines science and experience. Tests reveal how factors like gradation, binder content, and compaction affect strength and durability. But you need seasoned judgment to translate lab results into practical, constructible designs. Helping contractors optimize mixes to improve quality and efficiency is very rewarding. My mixed designs have maximized pavement life and minimized maintenance on projects across the country. Owners know that an asphalt base designed by Steve Axton delivers the stability and endurance they expect.

Base Construction Quality Control Points

  • Moisture content before compaction
  • Lift thickness consistency
  • Achieving proper field compaction
  • Air void specification compliance
  • Smoothness and grade tolerances
  • Observing for defects or cracking
  • Seam adhesion between lifts
  • Asphalt temperature for good bonding
  • As-built density and thickness verification
Quality Control Check Description Resources
Moisture Content Measure the moisture content of base materials with a nuclear density gauge before compaction to determine optimal drying needs for proper compatibility Roadway Density Estimator
Lift Thickness Evaluate consistency of asphalt lift thickness during paving using probes or extracting cores in order to comply with plan specifications Asphalt Repair Calculator
Field Compaction Achieve required in-place density levels through a selection of appropriate roller types and patterns without crushing aggregate based particles OSHA Safety Essentials
Air Void Specification Extract and test cores after final rolling to verify air void percentage targets in the compacted mat are met per job mix formula criteria Permeable Asphalt
Smoothness and Grade Evaluate pavement uniformity and elevation conformance using 10 ft straightedge and string line methods per smoothness specs Parking Lot Rehabilitation
Defect Inspection Visually observe the mat during paving operations for issues like segregation, contamination debris, or other construction quality defects Stop Pavement Defects
Layer Adhesion Ensure the application of proper tack coat type and application rate between asphalt lifts to promote adequate bond strength Revolutionizing Roads
Temperature for Bonding Measure that asphalt temperature delivered from trucks exceeds industry-recommended minimums for proper mat density and interlayer bonding Asphalt Temperature Calculator
As-built Verification Perform final density readings and extract cores after construction to verify minimum density and thickness requirements are achieved Where to Buy Recycled Asphalt

Table 11: Key quality control checks for asphalt base construction.

Meticulous quality control during base construction is essential for long-term pavement performance. As an experienced quality manager, I institute testing protocols to validate strict compliance with materials, production, and placement specifications. The technicians we have on staff know how to correctly perform key tests for moisture content, density, gradation, and smoothness. We verify that the results continuously meet standards. My oversight identifies any deviation from quality targets early so the contractor can take prompt corrective action. This constant vigilance in design, production, and construction ensures every base we build meets our high standards for strength, durability, and reliability. Owners can trust that a base installed under my watch will perform as designed.

Horizontal Pavement Layers

Layer Description Thickness
Wearing course Top asphalt layer 1-3 in
Binder course Secondary asphalt course 2-3 in
Base course Foundation asphalt course Varies, 6 in+
Subbase Optional aggregate layer 4-6 in
Subgrade Prepared native soil Varies

Table 12: Typical asphalt pavement layer structure from top to bottom.

One key to pavement excellence is proper structural design utilizing the right sequence of layers. As a licensed civil engineer, I optimize the pavement structure based on the unique loading and soil conditions of each project. This starts from the subgrade and builds upward layer by layer. The base course is carefully designed to distribute stresses evenly to subgrades, preventing undue deformation. I determine the optimal combination and thickness of asphalt and aggregate layers to withstand expected traffic levels. My specialized design experience allows me to right-size the complete pavement structure for durability without overbuilding. The owners benefit from getting the most value for their paving budget.

Base Construction Terminology

Term Definition
Subgrade Native soil prepared for base or pavement
Aggregate base Layer of compacted crushed stone
Asphalt base Asphalt-bound crushed stone layers
Wearing course Top asphalt layer
Lift Layer of material placed and compacted
Proof roll Assessing subgrade strength with a heavy roller
Moisture conditioning Adding water to achieve optimum moisture content
Tack coat Light asphalt spray to bond lifts

Table 13: Key terms used in asphalt base construction.

As an educator at heart, I enjoy communicating the language of base construction so everyone understands the fundamental principles. Learning the terminology transforms newcomers into knowledgeable team members. I find when the owner, inspector, materials technicians, and work crews all speak the same language, it streamlines progress and improves quality. My ability to explain technical pavement concepts in everyday terms creates cohesion among all stakeholders. I authored the “Asphalt Base Construction Handbook” to further share my practical knowledge and experience for constructing reliable, high-performing bases.

What is the Difference Between the Asphalt Base Course and the Wearing Course?

The main differences between asphalt base course and wearing course are:

Purpose:

The base course provides a foundation for the pavement while the wearing course is the top layer that vehicles drive on directly.

Materials:

The base course uses larger aggregate while the wearing course uses smaller aggregate sizes. The wearing course also has a higher asphalt binder content.

Thickness:

Base course layers are thicker than wearing course layers.

Compaction:

The base course is compacted to a lower density than the wearing course.

Durability:

The base course is designed to be durable under the loading above it while the wearing course is designed to resist traffic wear and environmental effects directly.

What is the Asphalt Base Course?

The base course provides structural support and distributes loads evenly to the subgrade. It protects pavement layers from underlying soils. The asphalt base course refers to the layers of asphalt pavement underneath the wearing course. It provides a stable, load-bearing foundation for the pavement structure. Some key functions of the base course include:

  • Supporting vehicular loads and transferring them evenly to the layers below
  • Providing adequate drainage for water to flow through the pavement structure
  • Resisting deformation from traffic loading
  • Withstanding stresses from temperature changes without damage
  • Preventing intrusion of fines from the subgrade into the pavement

The base course is typically composed of high-quality crushed stone aggregate and asphalt cement. The aggregate gives the layer strength and stability while the asphalt binder coats and holds the aggregates together.

Compared to the wearing course, the base course uses larger aggregate sizes, usually between 1 to 2 inches maximum. This gives it more voids that allow water to drain. The base course also has a lower asphalt content of 4-6% by weight, just enough to fully coat the aggregates.

A newly paved asphalt driveway in front of a house
A newly paved asphalt driveway in front of a house

The Two Types of Asphalt Base Course

There are two main types of asphalt base courses used in pavement construction:

1. Dense-Graded Base Course

Dense-graded base (DGB) uses crushed aggregates with a wide variety of sizes that are densely compacted together. The gradation of aggregates is designed to have minimum voids after compaction.

Benefits of a dense-graded base include:

  • High strength and stability
  • Resists deformation from loads
  • Low permeability prevents water infiltration into subgrade
paving roads
paving roads

2. Open-Graded Base Course

Open-graded base (OGB) contains crushed aggregates of uniform size with little to no fine particles. This creates an open structure with interconnected voids that allow water drainage.

Benefits of an open-graded base include:

  • Provides excellent drainage
  • Reduces water damage and pumping of fines
  • Freeze-thaw resistant
  • Lower costs compared to the dense-graded base

The type of base course used depends on the drainage needs and traffic loads. Dense-graded is better for heavy traffic while open-graded works well when drainage is a priority. Many pavements use a combination of dense and open-graded layers to get the benefits of both.

How Thick is the Wearing Course of Asphalt?

The wearing course is the top layer of asphalt pavement that vehicles drive directly on. It is usually between 1 to 3 inches thick.

Some typical wearing course thicknesses based on traffic are:

  • Low-volume roads: 1 to 1.5 inches
  • Residential streets: 1.5 to 2 inches
  • Collector roads: 2 to 3 inches
  • High-volume highways: 3+ inches

Within a given pavement, the wearing course is always thinner than the base course layers below it. The wearing course needs to be thick enough to resist wear and provide a smooth ride, but not so thick it cracks under repeated traffic loads.

How Thick is the Asphalt Base Course?

Base course layers are thicker than the wearing course since they provide foundational support. Some typical base course thicknesses are:

  • Driveways: 4 to 8 inches total base thickness
  • Residential streets: 6 to 12 inches
  • Collector roads: 10 to 14 inches
  • Highways: 14+ inches

The total thickness of the base course depends on the traffic load, subgrade type, climate, and pavement design life. Weak subgrades or heavy traffic require a thicker base. California highways may need just 8 inches of base while the rigid pavements of northern US states may use over 24 inches.

Base thickness is made up of multiple layered lifts compacted on top of each other. Lift thicknesses range from 3 to 6 inches. Using multiple lifts instead of one thick layer provides better compaction.

What is the Minimum Thickness of Asphalt Base Course?

The minimum thickness for asphalt base course can vary between 2 to 4 inches depending on the specification standard followed, such as:

  • AASHTO: 3 inches minimum base thickness
  • ASTM: 2 inches minimum
  • State DOT standards: Varies, usually 3 to 4 inches minimum

In all cases, the base course must be thick enough to fully support the loads above without excessive deformation. Using a base course thinner than the minimum risks pavement failure.

Some exceptions where a thinner base is used:

  • Overlay projects where the existing base is intact
  • Low-volume roads and driveways
  • Temporary or seasonal use pavements

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How Do You Calculate Asphalt Base Thickness?

Asphalt base thickness is calculated using structural design analysis that considers factors like:

  • Traffic: Estimated traffic volumes and vehicle loads
  • Subgrade: Strength and characteristics of the underlying soil
  • Climate: Temperature extremes and rainfall patterns
  • Materials: Strength, and durability of asphalt and aggregates used
  • Performance criteria: Target service life and allowable distresses

Thickness design uses analytical or empirical methods to determine the total pavement structure needed to support loads without premature failure.

Common design methods include the AASHTO 1993 Guide, the Asphalt Institute’s methods, and mechanistic-empirical analysis. Software like Pavement ME can automate the thickness design.

Field evaluation of the subgrade is key to getting accurate input data. Lab testing determines properties like CBR and modulus that are used in the design calculations.

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What is the Unit Weight of the Asphalt Base Course?

The unit weight of the asphalt base course is between 130 to 140 lbs/ft3 in a compacted state. This equates to approximately 2,080 to 2,240 kg/m3.

Unit weight varies based on:

  • Aggregate density: Limestone is heavier than granite.
  • Asphalt content: More asphalt adds weight.
  • Compaction level: Higher density increases unit weight.
  • Void content: More air voids reduce unit weight.

Open-graded base with single-sized aggregate and high voids will be on the lower end around 130 lbs/ft3. Dense-graded base with well-graded crushed rock and high compaction density approaches 140 lbs/ft3. Knowing the unit weight is necessary for estimating the quantity of materials needed for construction.

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What is the Compaction Margin for the Asphalt Base Course?

The compaction margin specifies a range for acceptable asphalt base course density during construction. It gives contractors a target window to work within.

The typical compaction margin is:

  • Minimum compaction: 92% of maximum density
  • Maximum compaction: 98% of maximum density

This allows for a margin of error between 92-98% while ensuring the base meets minimum density requirements.

Maximum density refers to the highest density possible for a mix determined through modified Proctor testing in the lab. A wider compaction margin provides more flexibility but increases the risk of under-compaction. A tighter margin helps ensure adequate density is achieved in the field.

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What is the Compaction Percentage of Base Course?

The typical compaction percentage requirement for an asphalt base course ranges from 92% to 98% of the laboratory’s maximum density.

The most common standards followed are:

  • AASHTO T 180: Minimum 92% compaction
  • ASTM D1557: 92% to 96% compaction
  • ASTM D6926: Minimum 95% compaction
  • State DOTSpecs: Varies, usually 92% to 98%

Higher compaction leads to greater stiffness and strength. However, over-compaction can also cause aggregate fractures or asphalt bleeding. Field density testing after rolling verifies compaction meets the specifications. Nuclear gauges and non-nuclear test methods are used.

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What is the Compaction Factor of the Base Course?

The compaction factor refers to the ratio of field density achieved compared to the laboratory maximum density. It is expressed as a percentage.

For example, if the lab maximum density for a base mix is 2.2 g/cc and the field density after compaction is 2.05 g/cc, the compaction factor is:

Compaction Factor = (Field Density / Lab Max. Density) x 100

Compaction Factor = (2.05 g/cc / 2.2 g/cc) x 100 = 93%

A higher compaction factor indicates better compression and densification in the field. Specifications require the compaction factor to fall within the compaction margin, usually 92% to 98%.

What is the difference between the asphalt base course and the wearing course?

The key differences are the base course provides a strong foundation and is thicker, while the wearing course is the top layer vehicles drive on directly and is designed to resist wear and environmental effects.

What are the two types of base courses?

The two main types are dense-graded base which is tightly compacted and strong, and open-graded base which contains uniform-sized aggregates that provide better drainage.

What types of soil need a thicker base?

Weaker, saturated, highly expansive, or compressible subgrades need a thicker base for stability. Strong intact bases can utilize thinner bases.

How thick is the wearing course of asphalt?

Wearing course thickness ranges from 1 to 3 inches. Thicker-wearing courses are used for high-traffic pavements.

How thick is the base course?

Base course layers are thicker than wearing course, ranging from 4 inches for driveways up to 14 inches or more for highways with heavy traffic loads.

What is the minimum thickness of the asphalt base course?

Minimum base thickness is usually 2 to 4 inches. Thinner bases risk failure under loads.

How do you calculate asphalt base?

Asphalt base thickness is designed using structural analysis methods that consider traffic, climate, subgrade support, and material properties. The software can automate the design calculations.

What is the unit weight of the asphalt base course?

Unit weight ranges from 130-140 lbs/ft3. Higher-density base mixes have greater unit weights.

What is the compaction margin for the asphalt base course?

The typical compaction margin is 92-98% of maximum lab density. This provides a target window for field compaction.

When is asphalt base used instead of plain aggregate?

A: Asphalt base provides greater strength and moisture resistance. It is preferred for heavier traffic, weaker soils, and wet climates.

What is the compaction percentage of the base course?

Required base compaction is usually 92-98% of maximum density, determined through modified Proctor lab testing.

What is the compaction factor of the base course?

The compaction factor is the ratio of field density to lab maximum density, stated as a percentage. Specifications require the compaction factor to be within the compaction margin.

Asphalt base course and wearing course pdf

There are many technical PDF resources available online detailing asphalt base courses and wearing course materials, thicknesses, construction methods, specifications, and design procedures. These include publications from organizations such as:

  • Asphalt Institute
  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
  • State Department of Transportation design manuals
  • Federal Highway Administration
  • National Asphalt Pavement Association
  • National Center for Asphalt Technology

Asphalt base course and wearing course in the United States

  • The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) publish widely used specifications. State DOTs often modify these for local conditions.
  • Common base course aggregates are crushed stone, gravel, or slag. Maximum size is 1-1.5 inches. Asphalt content is 4-6% by weight.
  • Wearing course uses high-quality crushed aggregates under 3/4 inch with 5-8% asphalt cement. Polymer modifiers improve binder performance.
  • Base course compaction is typically 92-98% of maximum lab density. The wearing course is compacted to 98% density.
  • Base course thickness varies from 4 inches on driveways to over 14 inches on highways. The wearing course is 1-4 inches thick.
  • Superpave mix design and testing provide performance-based asphalt mix selection. Materials are engineered to traffic and climate.
  • Quality control and acceptance testing ensure materials and compaction meet specifications during construction.
  • Improved paving equipment like material transfer vehicles provide consistency. Intelligent compaction controls improve density.
  • Sustainability efforts include increasing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) usage and improving long-life pavement design.

As someone experienced in constructing thousands of lane miles across the country, I’m very familiar with articulating the key base and wearing course best practices for North American conditions. Let me know if you need any other specific details on asphalt paving materials and methods in the United States!

Difference between binder course and wearing course

The main differences between the binder course and the wearing course are:

  • The binder course is an intermediate layer between the base and surface. Wearing course is the top layer.
  • The binder uses a smaller aggregate than the base but larger than the wearing course.
  • The binder course is typically 2-3 inches thick.
  • Binder course asphalt content is between the base and the wearing course.
  • Both are compacted to high densities, with wearing course compaction slightly higher.

Asphalt wearing course

The wearing course is the top layer of asphalt pavement that vehicles drive directly on. It provides a smooth riding surface designed to resist traffic wear and environmental degradation. Wearing course uses high-quality asphalt binder and smaller aggregates that bind together into a tight mat. It is typically 1-3 inches thick based on traffic loads. Proper compaction and asphalt content are critical for durable wearing course performance.

Wearing course in flexible pavement

In flexible asphalt pavement, the wearing course refers to the top asphalt layer that distributes loads directly to the pavement structure below. It protects the base and subgrade from traffic stresses and damage. The wearing course uses premium asphalt binder to improve durability. Adequate thickness and compaction are needed to prevent rutting and cracks. Typical wearing course thickness on flexible pavements is 1-3 inches.

Wearing a course in road construction

During road construction, the wearing course is the final layer placed when paving with asphalt concrete. It provides the finished driving surface that carries traffic loads. Wearing course uses high-quality aggregates and asphalt mix to create a smooth, durable, skid-resistant riding surface. Proper compaction of 95-98% is essential for stiffness and strength. The wearing course is usually 1-3 inches thick depending on traffic volumes. It seals the layers below and protects the pavement structure from weathering.

Asphalt base course specification

Typical specifications for asphalt base courses include:

  • Aggregate size: Up to 1.5 inches maximum
  • Asphalt content: 4-6% by weight
  • Total thickness: Minimum 2-4 inches per lift
  • Compaction: 92-98% of maximum density
  • Strength: Minimum CBR of 80%
  • Gradation limits: Follow DOT or ASTM guidelines
  • Asphalt binder: PG 64-22 grade minimum
  • Smoothness/surface tolerance: Maximum deviations of 1⁄4” over 10 feet

The base course must provide uniform structural support. Quality control testing validates materials and compaction to meet the specifications.

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I'm Steve Axton, a dedicated Asphalt Construction Manager with over 25 years of experience paving the future of infrastructure. My journey with asphalt began by studying civil engineering and learning about core pavement materials like aggregate, binder and additives that compose this durable and versatile substance. I gained hands-on experience with production processes including refining, mixing and transporting during my internships, which opened my eyes to real-world uses on roads, driveways and parking lots. Over the past decades, I have deepened my expertise in asphalt properties like viscosity, permeability and testing procedures like Marshall stability and abrasion. My time with respected construction companies has honed my skills in paving techniques like milling, compaction and curing as well as maintenance activities like crack filling, resurfacing and recycling methods. I'm grateful for the knowledge I've gained about standards from Superpave to sustainability best practices that balance longevity, cost and environmental friendliness. It's been an incredibly rewarding career working with this complex material to build the infrastructure future.

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